Trafficking is a serious crime and a grave violation of human rights. Every year, thousands of men, women, children, animal etc fall into the hands of traffickers, in their own countries and abroad. Almost every country in the world is affected by trafficking, whether as a country of origin, transit or destination for victims.
Some types of trafficking...Human Trafficking
The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
Examples of Human Trafficking* Forced Labor : The International Labour Organization estimates that 20.9 million people are subjected to forced labor, 4.5 million of which are victims of forced sexual exploitation. Forced labor is work or service that is extorted from someone under the menace of any penalty and work or service that the person has not offered voluntarily. Types of forced labor include debt bondage, trafficking, and other types of slavery. Vulnerability to forced labor increases in conjunction with high rates of unemployment, poverty, crime, discrimination, corruption, political conflict, or cultural practice. * Sex Trafficking:According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime of detected trafficking victims 53% are subjected to sexual exploitation. Sex trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, or harboring of persons through threat, use of force, or other coercion for the purpose of sexual exploitation. This includes movement across borders, as well as within the victim’s own country. The perceived inferior status of women in many parts of the world has contributed to the expansion of the trafficking industry. Each year, there is an estimated global profit of $100 billion for forced commercial sexual exploitation. * Debt Bondage: Debt bondage is a type of forced labor, involving a debt that cannot be paid off in a reasonable time. The employer/enforcer artificially inflates the amount of debt, adds exorbitant interest, and/or charges for living expenses, deducting little or nothing from the debt and increasing the amount of time the individual must work. It is a cycle of debt where there is no hope for freedom. Debt bondage is also known as debt slavery or bonded labor. * Child Sex Trafficking : While it is difficult to estimate the number of child victims of sex trafficking, ECPAT International estimates that there are as many 1.8 million children exploited in prostitution or pornography worldwide. Child sex trafficking, which includes the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is sexual exploitation by an adult with respect to a child, usually accompanied by a payment to the child or one or more third parties. Sex trafficking has devastating consequences for minors, including long-lasting physical and psychological trauma, disease (including HIV/AIDS), drug addiction, unwanted pregnancy, malnutrition, social ostracism, and possible death. Wildlife TraffickingWildlife trafficking involves the illegal gathering, transportation, and distribution of animals and their derivatives. This can be done either internationally or domestically. Estimates of the money generated by wildlife smuggling vary, in part because of its illegal nature. Wildlife smuggling is estimated at $7.8bn to $10bn a year, but the illegal nature of such activities make determining the amount of money involved incredibly difficult. When considered with illegal timber and fisheries, wildlife trafficking is a major illegal trade along with narcotics, human trafficking, and counterfeit products.Products demanded by the trade include exotic pets, food, traditional medicine, clothing, and jewellery made from animals' tusks, fins, skins, shells, horns, and internal organs. Smuggled wildlife is an increasing global demand; it is estimated that the US, China, and the European Union are the places with the highest demand. Arms Trafficking Arms trafficking, also known as gunrunning, is the illegal trafficking or smuggling of contraband weapons or ammunition. What constitutes legal trade in firearms varies widely, depending on local and national laws. The 1997 Report of the UN Panel of Governmental Experts on Small Arms provides a more refined and precise definition, which has become internationally accepted. This distinguishes between small arms (revolvers and self-loading pistols, rifles and carbines, submachine guns, assault rifles, and light machine guns), which are weapons designed for personal use, and light weapons (heavy machine guns, hand-held under-barrel and mounted grenade launchers, portable anti-aircraft guns, portable anti-tanks guns, recoilless rifles, portable launchers of anti-aircraft missile systems, and mortars of calibres less than 100 mm), which are designed for use by several persons serving as a unit. Ammunition and explosives also form an integral part of small arms and light weapons used in conflict. Drug Trafficking Proximity to the largest producers of heroin and hashish-the Golden Triangle and Golden Crescent (Afghanistan-Pakistan-Iran) -has made India's border vulnerable to drug trafficking. Indigenous production of low grade heroin as well as various psychotropic and prescription drugs and their growing demand in the neighbouring countries and international market have added a new dimension to the problem of drug trafficking. Trends and patterns of drug trafficking in the country demonstrate that there is a gradual shift from traditional/natural drugs towards synthetic drugs that are being trafficked. Trafficking of drugs takes place overwhelmingly through land borders followed by sea and air routes. Given the vulnerability of the borders to drug trafficking, India has tried to tackle the problem through the strategy of drug supply and demand reduction, which involves enacting laws, co-operating with voluntary organisations, securing its borders and coasts by increasing surveillance, as well as seeking the active cooperation of its neighbours and the international community.